Effects of molecular hydrogen as produced by our electrical and mineral water ionizers on various diseases have been documented for 63 disease models and human diseases in the past four and a half years. Prominent effects are observed especially in oxidative stress-mediated diseases including neonatal cerebral hypoxia; Parkinson’s disease; ischemia/reperfusion of spinal cord, heart, lung, liver, kidney, and intestine; transplantation of lung, heart, kidney, and intestine.


 Cerebral infarction [6, 30, 55, 56]Rodent, humanGas, saline
 Cerebral superoxide production [75]RodentWater
 Restraint-induced dementia [22]RodentWater
 Alzheimer’s disease [23, 24]RodentSaline
 Senile dementia in senescence-accelerated mice [25]RodentWater
 Parkinson’s disease [18, 19]RodentWater
 Hemorrhagic infarction [34]RodentGas
 Brain trauma [76]RodentGas
 Carbon monoxide intoxication [52]RodentSaline
 Transient global cerebral ischemia [66]RodentGas
 Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest-induced brain damage [57]RodentSaline
 Surgically induced brain injury [77]RodentGas
Spinal Cord
 Spinal cord injury [78]RodentSaline
 Spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion [51]RabbitGas
 Glaucoma [79]RodentInstillation
 Corneal alkali-burn [61]RodentInstillation
 Hearing loss [80–82]Tissue, rodentMedium, water
 Oxygen-induced lung injury [53, 60, 83, 84]RodentSaline
 Lung transplantation [85]RodentGas
 Paraquat-induced lung injury [86]RodentSaline
 Radiation-induced lung injury [87–89]RodentWater
 Burn-induced lung injury [90]RodentSaline
 Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion-induced lung injury [44]RodentSaline
 Acute myocardial infarction [36, 65, 91]RodentGas, saline
 Cardiac transplantation [46]RodentGas
 Sleep apnea-induced cardiac hypoxia [48]RodentGas
 Schistosomiasis-associated chronic liver inflammation [4]RodentGas
 Liver ischemia/reperfusion [5]RodentGas
 Hepatitis [43]RodentIntestinal gas
 Obstructive jaundice [47]RodentSaline
 Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy [62]RodentSaline
 Radiation-induced adverse effects for liver tumors [31]HumanWater
 Cisplatin-induced nephropathy [92–94]RodentGas, water
 Hemodialysis [20, 28]HumanDialysis solution
 Kidney transplantation [95]RodentWater
 Renal ischemia/reperfusion [54]RodentSaline
 Melamine-induced urinary stone [96]RodentWater
 Chronic kidney disease [37]RodentWater
 Acute pancreatitis [97]RodentSaline
 Intestinal transplantation [41, 45, 59]RodentGas, medium, saline
 Ulcerative colitis [42]RodentGas
 Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion [63]RodentSaline
Blood vessel
 Atherosclerosis [98]RodentWater
 Inflammatory and mitochondrial myopathies [29]HumanWater
 NO-induced cartilage toxicity [38]CellsMedium
 Diabetes mellitus type I [32]RodentWater
 Diabetes mellitus type II [26]HumanWater
 Metabolic syndrome [27, 99]Human, rodentWater
 Diabetes/obesity [33]RodentWater
Perinatal disorders
 Neonatal cerebral hypoxia [10–12]Rodent, pigGas, saline
 Preeclampsia [58]RodentSaline
 Type I allergy [64]RodentWater
 Sepsis [100]RodentGas
 Zymosan-induced inflammation [101]RodentGas
 LPS/IFNγ-induced NO production [67]CellsGas
 Growth of tongue carcinoma cells [14]CellsMedium
 Lung cancer cells [15]CellsMedium
 Radiation-induced thymic lymphoma [16]RodentSaline
 UVB-induced skin injury [49]RodentBathing
 Decompression sickness [102]RodentSaline
 Viability of pluripotent stromal cells [103]CellsGas
 Radiation-induced cell damage [104, 105]CellsMedium
 Oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced cell toxicity [50]CellsMedium
 High glucose-induced oxidative stress [35]CellsMedium



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  42. M. Kajiya, M. J. B. Silva, K. Sato, K. Ouhara, and T. Kawai, “Hydrogen mediates suppression of colon inflammation induced by dextran sodium sulfate,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 386, no. 1, pp. 11–15, 2009. 
  43. M. Kajiya, K. Sato, M. J. B. Silva et al., “Hydrogen from intestinal bacteria is protective for Concanavalin A-induced hepatitis,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 386, no. 2, pp. 316–321, 2009. 
  44. Y. F. Mao, X. F. Zheng, J. M. Cai et al., “Hydrogen-rich saline reduces lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in rats,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 381, no. 4, pp. 602–605, 2009. 
  45. X. Zheng, Y. Mao, J. Cai et al., “Hydrogen-rich saline protects against intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats,” Free Radical Research, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 478–484, 2009. 
  46. A. Nakao, D. J. Kaczorowski, Y. Wang et al., “Amelioration of rat cardiac cold ischemia/reperfusion injury with inhaled hydrogen or carbon monoxide, or both,” Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 544–553, 2010. 
  47. Q. Liu, W. F. Shen, H. Y. Sun et al., “Hydrogen-rich saline protects against liver injury in rats with obstructive jaundice,” Liver International, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 958–968, 2010. 
  48. T. Hayashi, T. Yoshioka, K. Hasegawa, et al., “Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates left ventricular remodeling induced by intermittent hypoxia in mice,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 301, pp. H1062–H1069, 2011. 
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  53. Q. A. Sun, J. Cai, S. Liu et al., “Hydrogen-rich saline provides protection against hyperoxic lung injury,”Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 165, no. 1, pp. e43–e49, 2011. 
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  62. H. Sun, L. Chen, W. Zhou et al., “The protective role of hydrogen-rich saline in experimental liver injury in mice,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 471–480, 2011.
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  68. S. U. Christl, P. R. Murgatroyd, G. R. Gibson, and J. H. Cummings, “Production, metabolism, and excretion of hydrogen in the large intestine,” Gastroenterology, vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 1269–1277, 1992.
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  71. A. Shimouchi, K. Nose, M. Takaoka, H. Hayashi, and T. Kondo, “Effect of dietary turmeric on breath hydrogen,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 1725–1729, 2009. 
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  74. M. Ito, M. Hirayama, K. Yamai, et al., “Drinking hydrogen water and intermittent hydrogen gas exposure, but not lactulose or continuous hydrogen gas exposure, prevent 6-hydorxydopamine-induced Parkinson’s disease in rats,” Medical Gas Research, vol. 2, article 15, 2012. 
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  78. C. Chen, Q. Chen, Y. Mao et al., “Hydrogen-rich saline protects against spinal cord injury in rats,”Neurochemical Research, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 1111–1118, 2010. 
  79. H. Oharazawa, T. Igarashi, T. Yokota et al., “Protection of the retina by rapid diffusion of hydrogen: administration of hydrogen-loaded eye drops in retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 487–492, 2010. 
  80. Y. S. Kikkawa, T. Nakagawa, R. T. Horie, and J. Ito, “Hydrogen protects auditory hair cells from free radicals,” NeuroReport, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 689–694, 2009. 
  81. A. Taura, Y. S. Kikkawa, T. Nakagawa, and J. Ito, “Hydrogen protects vestibular hair cells from free radicals,” Acta Oto-Laryngologica, vol. 130, no. 563, pp. 95–100, 2010. 
  82. Y. Lin, A. Kashio, T. Sakamoto, K. Suzukawa, A. Kakigi, and T. Yamasoba, “Hydrogen in drinking water attenuates noise-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 487, no. 1, pp. 12–16, 2011. 
  83. J. Zheng, K. Liu, Z. Kang et al., “Saturated hydrogen saline protects the lung against oxygen toxicity,”Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 185–192, 2010. 
  84. C. S. Huang, T. Kawamura, S. Lee et al., “Hydrogen inhalation ameliorates ventilator-induced lung injury,” Critical Care, vol. 14, no. 6, article R234, 2010. 
  85. T. Kawamura, C. S. Huang, N. Tochigi et al., “Inhaled hydrogen gas therapy for prevention of lung transplant-induced ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats,” Transplantation, vol. 90, no. 12, pp. 1344–1351, 2010. 
  86. S. Liu, K. Liu, Q. Sun et al., “Consumption of hydrogen water reduces paraquat-induced acute lung injury in rats,” Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, vol. 2011, Article ID 305086, 7 pages, 2011.
  87. L. Qian, F. Cao, J. Cui et al., “The potential cardioprotective effects of hydrogenin irradiated mice,”Journal of Radiation Research, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 741–747, 2010. 
  88. Y. Terasaki, I. Ohsawa, M. Terasaki, et al., “Hydrogen therapy attenuates irradiation-induced lung damage by reducing oxidative stress,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 301, pp. L415–L426, 2011.
  89. Y. Chuai, L. Zhao, J. Ni et al., “A possible prevention strategy of radiation pneumonitis: combine radiotherapy with aerosol inhalation of hydrogen-rich solution,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 1–4, 2011. 
  90. Y. Fang, X. J. Fu, C. Gu et al., “Hydrogen-rich saline protects against acute lung injury induced by extensive burn in rat model,” Journal of Burn Care and Research, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. e82–e91, 2011. 
  91. K. Hayashida, M. Sano, I. Ohsawa et al., “Inhalation of hydrogen gas reduces infarct size in the rat model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 373, no. 1, pp. 30–35, 2008. 
  92. N. Nakashima-Kamimura, T. Mori, I. Ohsawa, S. Asoh, and S. Ohta, “Molecular hydrogen alleviates nephrotoxicity induced by an anti-cancer drug cisplatin without compromising anti-tumor activity in mice,” Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 753–761, 2009. 
  93. A. Kitamura, S. Kobayashi, T. Matsushita, H. Fujinawa, and K. Murase, “Experimental verification of protective effect of hydrogen-rich water against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using dynamic contrast-enhanced CT,” British Journal of Radiology, vol. 83, no. 990, pp. 509–514, 2010. 
  94. T. Matsushita, Y. Kusakabe, A. Kitamura, S. Okada, and K. Murase, “Investigation of protective effect of hydrogen-rich water against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging,” Japanese Journal of Radiology, vol. 29, pp. 503–512, 2011.
  95. J. S. Cardinal, J. Zhan, Y. Wang et al., “Oral hydrogen water prevents chronic allograft nephropathy in rats,” Kidney International, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 101–109, 2010. 
  96. Y. S. Yoon, D. H. Kim, S. K. Kim et al., “The melamine excretion effect of the electrolyzed reduced water in melamine-fed mice,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 1814–1819, 2011. 
  97. H. Chen, Y. P. Sun, Y. Li et al., “Hydrogen-rich saline ameliorates the severity of l-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in rats,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 393, no. 2, pp. 308–313, 2010. 
  98. I. Ohsawa, K. Nishimaki, K. Yamagata, M. Ishikawa, and S. Ohta, “Consumption of hydrogen water prevents atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 377, no. 4, pp. 1195–1198, 2008. 
  99. M. Hashimoto and M. Katakura, “Effects of hydrogen-rich water on abnormalities in a SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rat—a metabolic syndrome rat model,” Medical Gas Research, vol. 1, article 26, 2011
  100. K. Xie, Y. Yu, Y. Pei et al., “Protective effects of hydrogen gas on murine polymicrobial sepsis via reducing oxidative stress and HMGB1 release,” Shock, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 90–97, 2010. 
  101. K. L. Xie, Y. H. Yu, Z. S. Zhang et al., “Hydrogen gas improves survival rate and organ damage in zymosan-induced generalized inflammation model,” Shock, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 495–501, 2010. 
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