Research

Research

Effects of molecular hydrogen as produced by our electrical and mineral water ionizers on various diseases have been documented for 63 disease models and human diseases in the past four and a half years. Prominent effects are observed especially in oxidative stress-mediated diseases including neonatal cerebral hypoxia; Parkinson’s disease; ischemia/reperfusion of spinal cord, heart, lung, liver, kidney, and intestine; transplantation of lung, heart, kidney, and intestine.

DiseasesSpeciesAdministration

Brain
 Cerebral infarction [6, 30, 55, 56]Rodent, humanGas, saline
 Cerebral superoxide production [75]RodentWater
 Restraint-induced dementia [22]RodentWater
 Alzheimer’s disease [23, 24]RodentSaline
 Senile dementia in senescence-accelerated mice [25]RodentWater
 Parkinson’s disease [18, 19]RodentWater
 Hemorrhagic infarction [34]RodentGas
 Brain trauma [76]RodentGas
 Carbon monoxide intoxication [52]RodentSaline
 Transient global cerebral ischemia [66]RodentGas
 Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest-induced brain damage [57]RodentSaline
 Surgically induced brain injury [77]RodentGas
Spinal Cord
 Spinal cord injury [78]RodentSaline
 Spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion [51]RabbitGas
Eye
 Glaucoma [79]RodentInstillation
 Corneal alkali-burn [61]RodentInstillation
Ear
 Hearing loss [80–82]Tissue, rodentMedium, water
Lung
 Oxygen-induced lung injury [53, 60, 83, 84]RodentSaline
 Lung transplantation [85]RodentGas
 Paraquat-induced lung injury [86]RodentSaline
 Radiation-induced lung injury [87–89]RodentWater
 Burn-induced lung injury [90]RodentSaline
 Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion-induced lung injury [44]RodentSaline
Heart
 Acute myocardial infarction [36, 65, 91]RodentGas, saline
 Cardiac transplantation [46]RodentGas
 Sleep apnea-induced cardiac hypoxia [48]RodentGas
Liver
 Schistosomiasis-associated chronic liver inflammation [4]RodentGas
 Liver ischemia/reperfusion [5]RodentGas
 Hepatitis [43]RodentIntestinal gas
 Obstructive jaundice [47]RodentSaline
 Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy [62]RodentSaline
 Radiation-induced adverse effects for liver tumors [31]HumanWater
Kidney
 Cisplatin-induced nephropathy [92–94]RodentGas, water
 Hemodialysis [20, 28]HumanDialysis solution
 Kidney transplantation [95]RodentWater
 Renal ischemia/reperfusion [54]RodentSaline
 Melamine-induced urinary stone [96]RodentWater
 Chronic kidney disease [37]RodentWater
Pancreas
 Acute pancreatitis [97]RodentSaline
Intestine
 Intestinal transplantation [41, 45, 59]RodentGas, medium, saline
 Ulcerative colitis [42]RodentGas
 Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion [63]RodentSaline
Blood vessel
 Atherosclerosis [98]RodentWater
Muscle
 Inflammatory and mitochondrial myopathies [29]HumanWater
Cartilage
 NO-induced cartilage toxicity [38]CellsMedium
Metabolism
 Diabetes mellitus type I [32]RodentWater
 Diabetes mellitus type II [26]HumanWater
 Metabolic syndrome [27, 99]Human, rodentWater
 Diabetes/obesity [33]RodentWater
Perinatal disorders
 Neonatal cerebral hypoxia [10–12]Rodent, pigGas, saline
 Preeclampsia [58]RodentSaline
Inflammation/allergy
 Type I allergy [64]RodentWater
 Sepsis [100]RodentGas
 Zymosan-induced inflammation [101]RodentGas
 LPS/IFNγ-induced NO production [67]CellsGas
Cancer
 Growth of tongue carcinoma cells [14]CellsMedium
 Lung cancer cells [15]CellsMedium
 Radiation-induced thymic lymphoma [16]RodentSaline
Others
 UVB-induced skin injury [49]RodentBathing
 Decompression sickness [102]RodentSaline
 Viability of pluripotent stromal cells [103]CellsGas
 Radiation-induced cell damage [104, 105]CellsMedium
 Oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced cell toxicity [50]CellsMedium
 High glucose-induced oxidative stress [35]CellsMedium

 

References

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  23. J. Li, C. Wang, J. H. Zhang, J. M. Cai, Y. P. Cao, and X. J. Sun, “Hydrogen-rich saline improves memory function in a rat model of amyloid-beta-induced Alzheimer’s disease by reduction of oxidative stress,”Brain Research, vol. 1328, pp. 152–161, 2010. 
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  25. Y. Gu, C. S. Huang, T. Inoue et al., “Drinking hydrogen water ameliorated cognitive impairment in senescence-accelerated mice,” Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 269–276, 2010. 
  26. S. Kajiyama, G. Hasegawa, M. Asano et al., “Supplementation of hydrogen-rich water improves lipid and glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance,” Nutrition Research, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 137–143, 2008.
  27. A. Nakao, Y. Toyoda, P. Sharma, M. Evans, and N. Guthrie, “Effectiveness of hydrogen rich water on antioxidant status of subjects with potential metabolic syndrome—an open label pilot study,” Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 140–149, 2010. 
  28. M. Nakayama, S. Kabayama, H. Nakano et al., “Biological effects of electrolyzed water in hemodialysis,”Nephron, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. C9–C15, 2009. 
  29. M. Ito, T. Ibi, K. Sahashi, M. Ichihara, and K. Ohno, “Open-label trial and randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of hydrogen-enriched water for mitochondrial and inflammatory myopathies,” Medical Gas Research, vol. 1, article 24, 2011. 
  30. H. Ono, Y. Nishijima, N. Adachi, et al., “Improved brain MRI indices in the acute brain stem infarct sites treated with hydroxyl radical scavengers, Edaravone and hydrogen, as compared to Edaravone alone. A non-controlled study,” Medical Gas Research, vol. 1, article 12, 2011. 
  31. K. M. Kang, Y. N. Kang, I. B. Choi, et al., “Effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water on the quality of life of patients treated with radiotherapy for liver tumors,” Medical Gas Research, vol. 1, article 11, 2011.
  32. Y. Li, T. Hamasaki, N. Nakamichi et al., “Suppressive effects of electrolyzed reduced water on alloxan-induced apoptosis and type 1 diabetes mellitus,” Cytotechnology, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 119–131, 2011. 
  33. N. Kamimura, K. Nishimaki, I. Ohsawa, and S. Ohta, “Molecular hydrogen improves obesity and diabetes by inducing hepatic FGF21 and stimulating energy metabolism in db/db mice,” Obesity, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 1396–1403, 2011. 
  34. C. H. Chen, A. Manaenko, Y. Zhan et al., “Hydrogen gas reduced acute hyperglycemia-enhanced hemorrhagic transformation in a focal ischemia rat model,” Neuroscience, vol. 169, no. 1, pp. 402–414, 2010. 
  35. P. Yu, Z. Wang, X. Sun et al., “Hydrogen-rich medium protects human skin fibroblasts from high glucose or mannitol induced oxidative damage,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 409, no. 2, pp. 350–355, 2011. 
  36. Y. Zhang, Q. Sun, B. He, J. Xiao, Z. Wang, and X. Sun, “Anti-inflammatory effect of hydrogen-rich saline in a rat model of regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 91–95, 2011. 
  37. W. J. Zhu, M. Nakayama, T. Mori et al., “Intake of water with high levels of dissolved hydrogen (H2) suppresses ischemia-induced cardio-renal injury in Dahl salt-sensitive rats,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 2112–2118, 2011.
  38. T. Hanaoka, N. Kamimura, T. Yokota, S. Takai, and S. Ohta, “Molecular hydrogen protects chondrocytes from oxidative stress and indirectly alters gene expressions through reducing peroxynitrite derived from nitric oxide,” Medical Gas Research, vol. 1, article 18, 2011. 
  39. D. D. Thomas, L. A. Ridnour, J. S. Isenberg et al., “The chemical biology of nitric oxide: implications in cellular signaling,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 18–31, 2008.
  40. Y. Nakai, B. Sato, S. Ushiama, S. Okada, K. Abe, and S. Arai, “Hepatic oxidoreduction-related genes are upregulated by administration of hydrogen-saturated drinking water,” Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 774–776, 2011. 
  41. B. M. Buchholz, D. J. Kaczorowski, R. Sugimoto et al., “Hydrogen inhalation ameliorates oxidative stress in transplantation induced intestinal graft injury,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 2015–2024, 2008. 
  42. M. Kajiya, M. J. B. Silva, K. Sato, K. Ouhara, and T. Kawai, “Hydrogen mediates suppression of colon inflammation induced by dextran sodium sulfate,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 386, no. 1, pp. 11–15, 2009. 
  43. M. Kajiya, K. Sato, M. J. B. Silva et al., “Hydrogen from intestinal bacteria is protective for Concanavalin A-induced hepatitis,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 386, no. 2, pp. 316–321, 2009. 
  44. Y. F. Mao, X. F. Zheng, J. M. Cai et al., “Hydrogen-rich saline reduces lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in rats,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 381, no. 4, pp. 602–605, 2009. 
  45. X. Zheng, Y. Mao, J. Cai et al., “Hydrogen-rich saline protects against intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats,” Free Radical Research, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 478–484, 2009. 
  46. A. Nakao, D. J. Kaczorowski, Y. Wang et al., “Amelioration of rat cardiac cold ischemia/reperfusion injury with inhaled hydrogen or carbon monoxide, or both,” Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 544–553, 2010. 
  47. Q. Liu, W. F. Shen, H. Y. Sun et al., “Hydrogen-rich saline protects against liver injury in rats with obstructive jaundice,” Liver International, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 958–968, 2010. 
  48. T. Hayashi, T. Yoshioka, K. Hasegawa, et al., “Inhalation of hydrogen gas attenuates left ventricular remodeling induced by intermittent hypoxia in mice,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 301, pp. H1062–H1069, 2011. 
  49. K. S. Yoon, X. Z. Huang, Y. S. Yoon, et al., “Histological study on the effect of electrolyzed reduced water-bathing on UVB radiation-induced skin injury in hairless mice,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 34, pp. 1671–1677, 2011. 
  50. G. Song, H. Tian, J. Liu, H. Zhang, X. Sun, and S. Qin, “H2 inhibits TNF-α-induced lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 expression by inhibiting nuclear factor κB activation in endothelial cells,” Biotechnology Letters, vol. 33, no. 9, pp. 1715–1722, 2011. 
  51. Y. Huang, K. Xie, J. Li et al., “Beneficial effects of hydrogen gas against spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury in rabbits,” Brain Research, vol. 1378, pp. 125–136, 2011. 
  52. Q. Sun, J. Cai, J. Zhou et al., “Hydrogen-rich saline reduces delayed neurologic sequelae in experimental carbon monoxide toxicity,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 765–769, 2011. 
  53. Q. A. Sun, J. Cai, S. Liu et al., “Hydrogen-rich saline provides protection against hyperoxic lung injury,”Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 165, no. 1, pp. e43–e49, 2011. 
  54. F. Wang, G. Yu, S. Y. Liu et al., “Hydrogen-rich saline protects against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats,” Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 167, no. 2, pp. e339–e344, 2011. 
  55. Q. Ji, K. Hui, L. Zhang, X. Sun, W. Li, and M. Duan, “The effect of hydrogen-rich saline on the brain of rats with transient ischemia,” Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 168, no. 1, pp. e95–e101, 2011. 
  56. Y. Liu, W. Liu, X. Sun, et al., “Hydrogen saline offers neuroprotection by reducing oxidative stress in a focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rat model,” Medical Gas Research, vol. 1, article 15, 2011. 
  57. L. Shen, J. Wang, K. Liu et al., “Hydrogen-rich saline is cerebroprotective in a rat model of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest,” Neurochemical Research, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 1501–1511, 2011.
  58. X. Yang, L. Guo, X. Sun, X. Chen, and X. Tong, “Protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline in preeclampsia rat model,” Placenta, vol. 32, pp. 681–686, 2011. 
  59. B. M. Buchholz, K. Masutani, T. Kawamura, et al., “Hydrogen-enriched preservation protects the isogeneic intestinal graft and amends recipient gastric function during transplantation,”Transplantation, vol. 92, pp. 985–992, 2011. 
  60. C. S. Huang, T. Kawamura, X. Peng et al., “Hydrogen inhalation reduced epithelial apoptosis in ventilator-induced lung injury via a mechanism involving nuclear factor-kappa B activation,”Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 408, no. 2, pp. 253–258, 2011. 
  61. M. Kubota, S. Shimmura, S. Kubota et al., “Hydrogen and N-acetyl-L-cysteine rescue oxidative stress-induced angiogenesis in a mouse corneal alkali-burn model,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 427–433, 2011. 
  62. H. Sun, L. Chen, W. Zhou et al., “The protective role of hydrogen-rich saline in experimental liver injury in mice,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 471–480, 2011.
  63. H. Chen, Y. P. Sun, P. F. Hu et al., “The effects of hydrogen-rich saline on the contractile and structural changes of intestine induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rats,” Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 167, no. 2, pp. 316–322, 2011. 
  64. T. Itoh, Y. Fujita, M. Ito et al., “Molecular hydrogen suppresses FcεRI-mediated signal transduction and prevents degranulation of mast cells,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 389, no. 4, pp. 651–656, 2009. 
  65. Q. Sun, Z. Kang, J. Cai et al., “Hydrogen-rich saline protects myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats,” Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 234, no. 10, pp. 1212–1219, 2009. 
  66. M. Hugyecz, É. Mracskó, P. Hertelendy, E. Farkas, F. Domoki, and F. Bari, “Hydrogen supplemented air inhalation reduces changes of prooxidant enzyme and gap junction protein levels after transient global cerebral ischemia in the rat hippocampus,” Brain Research, vol. 1404, pp. 31–38, 2011.
  67. T. Itoh, N. Hamada, R. Terazawa et al., “Molecular hydrogen inhibits lipopolysaccharide/interferon γ-induced nitric oxide production through modulation of signal transduction in macrophages,”Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 411, no. 1, pp. 143–149, 2011. 
  68. S. U. Christl, P. R. Murgatroyd, G. R. Gibson, and J. H. Cummings, “Production, metabolism, and excretion of hydrogen in the large intestine,” Gastroenterology, vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 1269–1277, 1992.
  69. A. Strocchi and M. D. Levitt, “Maintaining intestinal H2 balance: credit the colonic bacteria,”Gastroenterology, vol. 102, no. 4, pp. 1424–1426, 1992. 
  70. Y. Suzuki, M. Sano, K. Hayashida, I. Ohsawa, S. Ohta, and K. Fukuda, “Are the effects of α-glucosidase inhibitors on cardiovascular events related to elevated levels of hydrogen gas in the gastrointestinal tract?” FEBS Letters, vol. 583, no. 13, pp. 2157–2159, 2009. 
  71. A. Shimouchi, K. Nose, M. Takaoka, H. Hayashi, and T. Kondo, “Effect of dietary turmeric on breath hydrogen,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 1725–1729, 2009. 
  72. G. R. Corazza, M. Sorge, A. Strocchi et al., “Non-absorbable antibiotics and small bowel bacterial overgrowth,” Italian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 4–9, 1992. 
  73. X. Chen, Q. Zuo, Y. Hai, and X. J. Sun, “Lactulose: an indirect antioxidant ameliorating inflammatory bowel disease by increasing hydrogen production,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 325–327, 2011. 
  74. M. Ito, M. Hirayama, K. Yamai, et al., “Drinking hydrogen water and intermittent hydrogen gas exposure, but not lactulose or continuous hydrogen gas exposure, prevent 6-hydorxydopamine-induced Parkinson’s disease in rats,” Medical Gas Research, vol. 2, article 15, 2012. 
  75. Y. Sato, S. Kajiyama, A. Amano et al., “Hydrogen-rich pure water prevents superoxide formation in brain slices of vitamin C-depleted SMP30/GNL knockout mice,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 375, no. 3, pp. 346–350, 2008. 
  76. X. Ji, W. Liu, K. Xie et al., “Beneficial effects of hydrogen gas in a rat model of traumatic brain injury via reducing oxidative stress,” Brain Research, vol. 1354, pp. 196–205, 2010. 
  77. J. M. Eckermann, W. Chen, V. Jadhav, et al., “Hydrogen is neuroprotective against surgically induced brain injury,” Medical Gas Research, vol. 1, article 7, 2011.
  78. C. Chen, Q. Chen, Y. Mao et al., “Hydrogen-rich saline protects against spinal cord injury in rats,”Neurochemical Research, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 1111–1118, 2010. 
  79. H. Oharazawa, T. Igarashi, T. Yokota et al., “Protection of the retina by rapid diffusion of hydrogen: administration of hydrogen-loaded eye drops in retinal ischemia-reperfusion injury,” Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 487–492, 2010. 
  80. Y. S. Kikkawa, T. Nakagawa, R. T. Horie, and J. Ito, “Hydrogen protects auditory hair cells from free radicals,” NeuroReport, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 689–694, 2009. 
  81. A. Taura, Y. S. Kikkawa, T. Nakagawa, and J. Ito, “Hydrogen protects vestibular hair cells from free radicals,” Acta Oto-Laryngologica, vol. 130, no. 563, pp. 95–100, 2010. 
  82. Y. Lin, A. Kashio, T. Sakamoto, K. Suzukawa, A. Kakigi, and T. Yamasoba, “Hydrogen in drinking water attenuates noise-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 487, no. 1, pp. 12–16, 2011. 
  83. J. Zheng, K. Liu, Z. Kang et al., “Saturated hydrogen saline protects the lung against oxygen toxicity,”Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 185–192, 2010. 
  84. C. S. Huang, T. Kawamura, S. Lee et al., “Hydrogen inhalation ameliorates ventilator-induced lung injury,” Critical Care, vol. 14, no. 6, article R234, 2010. 
  85. T. Kawamura, C. S. Huang, N. Tochigi et al., “Inhaled hydrogen gas therapy for prevention of lung transplant-induced ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats,” Transplantation, vol. 90, no. 12, pp. 1344–1351, 2010. 
  86. S. Liu, K. Liu, Q. Sun et al., “Consumption of hydrogen water reduces paraquat-induced acute lung injury in rats,” Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, vol. 2011, Article ID 305086, 7 pages, 2011.
  87. L. Qian, F. Cao, J. Cui et al., “The potential cardioprotective effects of hydrogenin irradiated mice,”Journal of Radiation Research, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 741–747, 2010. 
  88. Y. Terasaki, I. Ohsawa, M. Terasaki, et al., “Hydrogen therapy attenuates irradiation-induced lung damage by reducing oxidative stress,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 301, pp. L415–L426, 2011.
  89. Y. Chuai, L. Zhao, J. Ni et al., “A possible prevention strategy of radiation pneumonitis: combine radiotherapy with aerosol inhalation of hydrogen-rich solution,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 1–4, 2011. 
  90. Y. Fang, X. J. Fu, C. Gu et al., “Hydrogen-rich saline protects against acute lung injury induced by extensive burn in rat model,” Journal of Burn Care and Research, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. e82–e91, 2011. 
  91. K. Hayashida, M. Sano, I. Ohsawa et al., “Inhalation of hydrogen gas reduces infarct size in the rat model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 373, no. 1, pp. 30–35, 2008. 
  92. N. Nakashima-Kamimura, T. Mori, I. Ohsawa, S. Asoh, and S. Ohta, “Molecular hydrogen alleviates nephrotoxicity induced by an anti-cancer drug cisplatin without compromising anti-tumor activity in mice,” Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 753–761, 2009. 
  93. A. Kitamura, S. Kobayashi, T. Matsushita, H. Fujinawa, and K. Murase, “Experimental verification of protective effect of hydrogen-rich water against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using dynamic contrast-enhanced CT,” British Journal of Radiology, vol. 83, no. 990, pp. 509–514, 2010. 
  94. T. Matsushita, Y. Kusakabe, A. Kitamura, S. Okada, and K. Murase, “Investigation of protective effect of hydrogen-rich water against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats using blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging,” Japanese Journal of Radiology, vol. 29, pp. 503–512, 2011.
  95. J. S. Cardinal, J. Zhan, Y. Wang et al., “Oral hydrogen water prevents chronic allograft nephropathy in rats,” Kidney International, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 101–109, 2010. 
  96. Y. S. Yoon, D. H. Kim, S. K. Kim et al., “The melamine excretion effect of the electrolyzed reduced water in melamine-fed mice,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 1814–1819, 2011. 
  97. H. Chen, Y. P. Sun, Y. Li et al., “Hydrogen-rich saline ameliorates the severity of l-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in rats,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 393, no. 2, pp. 308–313, 2010. 
  98. I. Ohsawa, K. Nishimaki, K. Yamagata, M. Ishikawa, and S. Ohta, “Consumption of hydrogen water prevents atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout mice,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 377, no. 4, pp. 1195–1198, 2008. 
  99. M. Hashimoto and M. Katakura, “Effects of hydrogen-rich water on abnormalities in a SHR.Cg-Leprcp/NDmcr rat—a metabolic syndrome rat model,” Medical Gas Research, vol. 1, article 26, 2011
  100. K. Xie, Y. Yu, Y. Pei et al., “Protective effects of hydrogen gas on murine polymicrobial sepsis via reducing oxidative stress and HMGB1 release,” Shock, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 90–97, 2010. 
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